When an employee says he is hiv positive case study answers

Rather, it is a lack of hope and income-earning opportunity among those most at risk, namely school leavers and the youth, that continues to fuel the spread of the virus. The message seems to be that, without prospects for employment, education and a decent quality of life, our youth are adopting a what's-the-point attitude to their health and future, leading to irresponsible sexual behaviour and the resultant risks this carries with it.

If this is the case, reason would dictate that, to halt the spread of Aids and reverse the gains this epidemic continues to make among our poor and marginalised communities, we need to offer young people real alternatives and opportunities. There are many youth development and training opportunities, and the dozens of government agencies and non-governmental organisations geared at supporting and educating school leavers and new entrants into the job market show a passionate commitment to finding solutions.

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Unfortunately, the continued spread of Aids and ever-increasing unemployment, especially at a graduate level, would suggest that these initiatives are not having the impact that our country needs. So what is the answer? How do we create solutions that encourage young people to reach for the stars and not stumble over their own feet? Bridging the gap Firstly, we need more opportunities that bridge the gap between where the unemployed youth are now and where they aspire to be.

The rapidly changing world is a scary place for many people, and especially for school leavers and graduates as they face the responsibility of making a living and supporting their families. We need to make this transition from childhood to adulthood easier by providing accessible stepping stones such as internships, apprenticeships and low-risk micro-business opportunities. Internships are used extensively in the United States and Europe as a way to provide on-the-job experience for young school leavers, often forming part of the requirements for a tertiary degree. Internship can be valuable to employers too, introducing a try-before-you-buy option.

Internship provides excellent practical experience for youngsters and brings an infusion of new ideas and affordable, capable resources to businesses. Through Gap and supported by the jobs fund, we are aiming to revolutionise the way the small, medium and micro-enterprise SMME sector views the hosting of graduates and interns. Simple solutions The concept of learnerships and apprenticeships is well established in South Africa but appears to be having limited success. Unfortunately, the cumbersome sector educational and training Seta process makes the accredited training and learnership route unattractive for most smaller businesses and an administrative nightmare for learner and host alike.

We need to simplify this process, get youngsters into businesses to learn on the job and to start producing school leavers and graduates who have relevant, practical skills that are aligned to employers' needs. In the same vein, the youth need access to practical, needs-based training that provides the skills they need to succeed in the real world.

We must scrutinise training programmes ensure they teach skills that are needed by commerce and that these skills will help our young people to find jobs.

We need to ensure that, in addition to self-belief and motivation, youngsters have practical, immediately implementable and in-demand skills. A recurring theme in rural and peri-urban small businesses that participate in Legends, an enterprise development programme we run, is a lack of basic computer skills. But to find training organisations that offer decent personal computer literacy training at reasonable rates is almost impossible. The provision of computer training at school and university level needs to be a top priority if South Africa is ever to build an economy in which our people can advance from being low-skilled labourers to valued employees.

This needs support and a working partnership between the government and business.


Thirdly, we need to ensure that the trainers and support partners are themselves equipped and experienced in the skills they teach. Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. More Videos Story highlights Jenipher Mukite's mother revealed on her deathbed that she had HIV The whole family tested positive and Jenipher felt pressure to marry early.

It was her mother's answer to a question both she and her siblings had feared asking that altered her present, past and future in one sweep. While their mother was bedridden, unable to move or eat yet refusing to go to the hospital to seek medical help, they finally mustered the courage to ask.

Procedure for HIV-positive cases

Worse still for them, she had been living with the virus since before Jenipher, then 18, and her brother and sister, then 14 and 10, were born -- and had not been on treatment. Her mother confessed that the drugs had been too big and difficult for her to consume. My mother had kept it a secret, Mukite said through an interpreter. Soon, their whole village in the Bugiri district of Eastern Uganda gossiped about their mother and the fact that her whole family must also be infected.

Most countries, including Uganda, readily offer HIV testing when women come in for pregnancy checkups and offer treatment on-site for those found to be infected. But this was not the case when Mukite was born. After disclosing her HIV status, Mukite's mother was kicked out of their home by their father, but with nowhere to go and no one to care for her, returned home and died a few weeks later.

All three children and their father soon found out that they too were HIV-positive. With the death of her mother, Mukite's main confidante and carer, everything changed. She said she wanted to commit suicide. May an employer tell employees who ask why their co-worker is allowed to do something that generally is not permitted such as working at home or working a modified schedule that she is receiving a reasonable accommodation? Telling coworkers that an employee is receiving a reasonable accommodation amounts to a disclosure that the employee has a disability.

Rather than disclosing that the employee is receiving a reasonable accommodation, the employer should focus on the importance of maintaining the privacy of all employees and emphasize that its policy is to refrain from discussing the work situation of any employee with co-workers. Employers may be able to avoid many of these kinds of questions by training all employees on the requirements of equal employment laws, including the ADA.

Additionally, an employer will benefit from providing information about reasonable accommodation to all of its employees. This can be done in a number of ways, such as through written reasonable accommodation procedures, employee handbooks, staff meetings, and periodic training. This kind of proactive approach may lead to fewer questions from employees who misperceive co-worker accommodations as "special treatment. Example 6: A large store does not provide its sales employees with smartphones.

However, the employer does provide a deaf employee with one, as a reasonable accommodation, so that he can receive text messages instead of the numerous communications made over the public address system that he cannot hear, such as requests for sales representatives to report to different parts of the store to assist customers. If other employees ask why he has a smartphone and they do not, the employer may not divulge any information about the impairment, including the fact that the smartphone is a reasonable accommodation.

The ADA requires employers to provide adjustments or modifications - called reasonable accommodations - to enable applicants and employees with disabilities to enjoy equal employment opportunities unless doing so would be an undue hardship that is, a significant difficulty or expense.

Accommodations vary depending on the needs of the individual with a disability.

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Not all employees with a hearing disability will need an accommodation or require the same accommodations. Example 7: Simon has a hearing disability and works as a project manager for a regional telephone company. Simon is usually able to use his lip reading ability to communicate individually with his co-workers. However, Simon occasionally requests a sign language interpreter for large-group conferences and meetings, because it is not possible for him to use lip-reading when people who are not in his line of sight are speaking.

Simon's employer would have to provide the sign language interpreter as a reasonable accommodation, absent undue hardship. For more information about "undue hardship," see Question 12, below. Example 8: Allen, who has a hearing disability, works as an information technology IT specialist with a small, Internet-advertising firm.


The IT specialist position requires frequent one-on-one meetings with the firm's president. Because it will not cause an undue hardship, the firm accommodates Allen by acquiring voice recognition software for him to use in his meetings with the president. The software is programmed to translate the president's spoken word into written electronic text. Example 9: An employer has an annual all-employee meeting for more than employees. Thelma, who has a severe hearing impairment, requests the use of an ALD in the form of a personal FM system.

Speakers would wear small microphones that would transmit amplified sounds directly to a receiver in Thelma's ear. The employer determines that an ALD is a reasonable accommodation that will allow Thelma to participate in the meeting without causing an undue hardship. Example Kendall works as an associate for an international consulting firm.

Kendall has a hearing disability for which he uses a hearing aid and lip reading. His company sometimes conducts video-conferencing meetings with clients in other countries. During these meetings, Kendall finds it difficult to participate because some of the clients speak with foreign accents and the video feedback is not continuous. Kendall requests the use of remote CART services to accommodate his hearing disability during international client meetings.

The requested accommodation would translate the client's spoken word on Kendall's notebook computer monitor at an almost real-time speed. This accommodation would allow Kendall to participate fully in the meetings and should be provided, absent undue hardship.


Example Ann works as an accountant in a large firm located in a high-rise building in the city. Ann has a large window in her office that faces the street-side of the building.

HIV & AIDS - signs, symptoms, transmission, causes & pathology

She wears a hearing aid to mitigate her severe hearing impairment. Throughout the workday many exterior noises for example, police sirens, car horns, and street musicians are amplified by Ann's hearing aid and interfere with her ability to hear people speaking in her office. Ann requests, and her employer agrees, that moving her to a vacant interior office is a reasonable accommodation without causing an undue hardship.

HIV/AIDS in the Workplace : OSH Answers

Example Beth is deaf and requests leave as a reasonable accommodation to train a new hearing dog. Hearing dogs assist deaf and hard of hearing individuals by alerting them to a variety of household and workplace sounds such as a telephone ring, door knock or doorbell, alarm clock, buzzer, name call, speaker announcement, and smoke or fire alarm. A hearing dog is trained to make physical contact and direct a person to the source of the sound. Under her employer's leave policy, Beth does not have enough annual or sick leave to cover her requested absence.

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The employer must provide additional unpaid leave as a reasonable accommodation, absent undue hardship. Example Maria, a librarian, is primarily responsible for cataloguing books, writing book summaries, and scheduling book tours. Recently, Maria has had to fill in as a desk librarian since the regular librarian is on vacation. Maria has a severe hearing disability and uses a hearing aid. She finds it difficult to hear patrons if there is any background noise. She asks to switch her front desk duties with another librarian who processes book orders transmitted over the phone or Internet.

Since working at the front desk is a minor function of Maria's job, the employer should accommodate the change in job duties, absent undue hardship. It is difficult for him to hear customers and co-workers on the floor because of music and frequent announcements played over the store's public address system and background noise in the store, particularly during busy periods.