Write scientific research paper

But if you are going to be writing a longer review or you'd like to explore a more general area of interest, choose a topic that is wide enough so that you will be able to find enough articles to discuss.

Pick something you're interested in and that you have experience researching. A review is meant to be a survey of the current state of a field - and the less you know about a field or topic at the outset, the more work you're going to have to do in order to have an authoritative voice that can provide insight about the research that has been done. Choose a topic that will be interesting to others whether it's currently receiving a lot of attention, it's a controversial topic, or it's in a well-established field. You want to contribute to the knowledge base and understanding of other scientists so make sure it centers around a topic that has a good-sized audience!

Is there a better way to answer the research question? How does the author approach the study - from a theoretical, experimental, interpretive, or clinical etc.

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Did they choose the best approach? Is the author using an assumed theoretical framework such as, for example, psychoanalytic or developmental? How does this affect the conclusions they draw? How does the author engage with other literature in the field? Did the researchers choose appropriate methods of experimentation and data analysis for the research question? Presentation, discussion, exercise rewriting sample sentences. The writing process - overview of the process of writing, including techniques for getting motivated, getting into the habit of writing and getting feedback.

Presentation and discussion.

General Format for Writing a Scientific Paper

The structure of the paper - the usual structure of research papers and common variations. Presentation, discussion, exercise analysing a paper. Title and abstract - guidance on writing titles and abstracts and avoiding common errors, and a chance to write your own abstract and get feedback on it. Presentation, analysis exercise, writing exercise, one-to-one coaching. Choosing a journal - The criteria to think about when choosing a journal, such as scope, audience, speed of review and publication, open access options, impact metrics, charges. Presentation, discussion and exercise investigating websites of journals you might submit to.

It should give readers enough information to appreciate your specific objectives within a larger theoretical framework. After placing your work in a broader context, you should state the specific question s to be answered. This section may also include background information about the problem such as a summary of any research that has been done on the problem in the past and how the present experiment will help to clarify or expand the knowledge in this general area. All background information gathered from other sources must, of course, be appropriately cited.

Proper citation of references will be described later. A helpful strategy in this section is to go from the general, theoretical framework to your specific question. However, do not make the Introduction too broad. Remember that you are writing for classmates who have knowledge similar to yours. Present only the most relevant ideas and get quickly to the point of the paper.

For examples, see the Appendix. This section explains how and, where relevant, when the experiment was done. The researcher describes the experimental design, the apparatus, methods of gathering data and type of control. If any work was done in a natural habitat, the worker describes the study area, states its location and explains when the work was done.

How to Write a Great Research Paper

If specimens were collected for study, where and when that material was collected are stated. DO NOT write this section as though it were directions in a laboratory exercise book. Instead of writing:. First pour agar into six petri plates. Then inoculate the plates with the bacteria. Then put the plates into the incubator. Simply describe how the experiment was done:. Six petri plates were prepared with agar and inoculated with the bacteria. The plates were incubated for ten hours. The materials that were used in the research are simply mentioned in the narrative as the experimental procedure is described in detail.

If well-known methods were used without changes, simply name the methods e.

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If modified standard techniques were used, describe the changes. Here the researcher presents summarized data for inspection using narrative text and, where appropriate, tables and figures to display summarized data.

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Only the results are presented. No interpretation of the data or conclusions about what the data might mean are given in this section.

How To Write A Scientific Paper

Do not present raw data! Do not repeat extensively in the text the data you have presented in tables and figures. But, do not restrict yourself to passing comments either. For example, only stating that "Results are shown in Table 1. The text describes the data presented in the tables and figures and calls attention to the important data that the researcher will discuss in the Discussion section and will use to support Conclusions. Rules to follow when constructing and presenting figures and tables are presented in a later section of this guide.

Here, the researcher interprets the data in terms of any patterns that were observed, any relationships among experimental variables that are important and any correlations between variables that are discernible. The author should include any explanations of how the results differed from those hypothesized, or how the results were either different from or similar to those of any related experiments performed by other researchers.

Remember that experiments do not always need to show major differences or trends to be important.

Citing Sources in the Introduction

A useful strategy in discussing your experiment is to relate your specific results back to the broad theoretical context presented in the Introduction. Since your Introduction went from the general to a specific question, going from the specific back to the general will help to tie your ideas and arguments together. This section should not offer any reasons for those particular conclusions--these should have been presented in the Discussion section.

By looking at only the Introduction and Conclusions sections, a reader should have a good idea of what the researcher has investigated and discovered even though the specific details of how the work was done would not be known. In this section you should give credit to people who have helped you with the research or with writing the paper. If your work has been supported by a grant, you would also give credit for that in this section. This section lists, in alphabetical order by author, all published information that was referred to anywhere in the text of the paper. It provides the readers with the information needed should they want to refer to the original literature on the general problem.

Note that the Literature Cited section includes only those references that were actually mentioned cited in the paper. Any other information that the researcher may have read about the problem but did not mention in the paper is not included in this section. This is why the section is called "Literature Cited" instead of "References" or "Bibliography". The system of citing reference material in scientific journals varies with the particular journal. The method that you will follow is the "author-date" system.

Listed below are several examples of how citations should be presented in the text of your paper.

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The name s of the author s and year of publication are included in the body of the text. Sentence structure determines the placement of the parentheses. One author : 'Scott's model fails to Two authors : 'Libby and Libby show Three or more authors : 'Roche et al. Entries in the Literature Cited section are listed alphabetically by author s and chronologically for papers by the same author s. The following citations illustrate the details of punctuation and order of information for a journal article, book, Internet source, and your laboratory packet.

Schneider, M. Occurrence of indoleacetic acid in the bryophytes. Stebbins, G.